Shree Nayar and Makoto Odamaki, scientists at Columbia University, developed a modular camera system made with 3d printed enclosure named Cambits. Electronics is the main part of technology and 3d printing is just gives the structure and housing. Still, very interesting piece of engineering and research.
There are five different type of Cambits: sensors, light sources, actuators, lenses, and optical attachments. The blocks can easily be assembled to make a variety of cameras with different functionalities such as high dynamic range imaging, panoramic imaging, refocusing, light field imaging, depth imaging using stereo, kaleidoscopic imaging and even microscopy.
CU project homepage: